Fachdokumente Online der Landesanstalt für Umwelt Baden-Württemberg

zur LUBW   zum Ministerium für Umwelt, Klima und Energiewirtschaft   zum Ministerium für Ländlichen Raum und Verbraucherschutz   zum Ministerium für Verkehr und Infrastruktur  

Practical performance of the literature study „Soil fauna and Environment": Soil ecological inventory and evaluation of selected sites in Baden-Württemberg

Summary

In an industrialised region like Baden-Württemberg soils can be highly disturbed. At the same time the natural biocenosis of many soil ecosystems is poorly known. Based on a literature study "Soil fauna and the environment", which was sponsored by the Ministry for the Environment of Baden-Württemberg, soil biological factors for a representative number of more or less undisturbed forest sites were determined. The results were validated at two sites (Crailsheim, Bruchsal) with 3 and 4 sampling plots, which did not differ concerning natural site factors but with regard to the contamination situation. Based on five site factors (= ecological determinants) the species composition of meso- and macrofauna groups was determined. Afterwards, the actual populations of these organisms as well as two functional parameter (litter decomposition, feeding rates) were investigated for a period of two years. Especially two questions have been studied: 1. How did anthropogenic factors like the anthropogenic usage of a site or emissions of potential toxic substances from a highway influence structure and function of the soil biocoenosis? 2. Is it possible to assess the soil quality of these two sites as a habitat for soil organisms by using the soil biological classification concept (abbreviated as BBSK)?

At the Crailsheim site, the expected changes of the soil biocoenosis when comparing different anthropogenic uses (forest or meadow) were found. On the contrary, in Bruchsal two plots near to the highway did not differ from two sites in the inner forest concerning their biocoenosis. Border effects close to the highway (especially in arthropod groups) or anthropogenic stress on all four sampling plots (either mechanically or by toxic chemicals; e.g. for earthworms) might be responsible for this observation. Therefore, all four plots of the Bruchsal site can be assessed as being conspicuous. On the contrary, according to the BBSK concept there are no differences between the expected and the real soil biological coenosis in Crailsheim.

Based on these experiences recommendations for the further development of the BBSK concept are made, especially concerning the relation between structural and functional parameter as well as statistical assessment methods. In detail a tiered approach is presented, starting with a differentiation of the use form of the site to be assessed. Later on the determination of various animal groups will be used for the soil biological classification of a given site.

 


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